Monthly Archives: August 2010

Artery Game Concept




wall is more complicated than I thought

Branch frequency is inversely proportional to the diameter

Branches aren’t complicated and are half the volume of the trunk

width (ID) 24000µm to 47000µm (aorta) to 8µm (capillary)

contain endothelial cells that are 1-2µm thick and 10-20µm in diameter (flat pavement like patterns to seal vessel)



the whump-whump of the heart beating (or the heart valves snapping shut)

the whoosh of the plasma as it is forced through the blood vessels



see the inside of the blood vessels (as the red blood cells do not leave the blood vessels and enter the organs – only the plasma and dissolved substances do this)

color change of the RBC as it goes through capillaries in lungs vs. other capillaries (organs, skin)

it seemed to become lighter as you passed through the blood vessels near the surface of the skin (like the ones in your wrist).



Round-trip is about one minute (on average) 20 seconds minimum and I guess 100 seconds

Talked about dilating time to the same extent that we are shrinking ourselves



A vial or set of vials to show stats?



Blood on white looks really crisp





(rbc, wbc*5, platelets)

The neutrophil are the more common leukocytes. They have a diameter of 12-15 µm. You can recognize them as their nucleus is divided into 2 – 5 lobes connected by a fine nuclear strand or filament

eosinophils are quite rare in the blood.

Basophils are the rarest leukocytes: less than 1 %

Lymphocytes are quite common in the blood: 20-40%, 8-10 µm in diameter and generally they are smaller than the other leukocytes but they are still a few larger than red cells (fig. 11). The cytoplasm is transparent. The nucleus is round and large in comparison to the cell and it occupies most of it. In any case, some of the cytoplasm remains visible, generally in a lateral position.

Monocytes are the biggest leukocytes: 16-20 µm. They have a great reniform or horseshoe-shaped nucleus, in some cases even bi-lobed. The cytoplasm is transparent, but with an appearance of “ground glass” (fig. 12).

there are 3 kinds of leukocytes (B, T, NK)

B lymphocytes recognize the bacteria and viruses. The B stands for bone marrow, where B lymphocytes are made. B lymphocytes stay in the bone marrow until they are fully grown.

T lymphocytes start the attack on bacteria and viruses. The T stands for thymus. This is where T cells go to grow.

NK cells (or natural killer cells) destroy abnormal cells, including bacteria, cells infected with viruses and cancer cells.

A neutrophil is one type of white blood cell (leukocyte/leucocyte) that assists the body’s immune system to ward off disease. From 40 – 60% of the white blood cells in an healthy human are neutrophils.

Their purpose is to aid removal of noxious stimuli that cause cell death (necrosis) that lead to inflammation. They will engulf and digest (phagocytose) the foreign materials and die in the process, making the area less toxic, they then themselves need removed or to be apoptosed (killed and removed/absorbed under control).

Neutrophils normally reside in the blood, circulating as part of your innate (passive/non-specific) immune system. They will accumulate at sites of infection and inflammation; they are a phagocytic cell, but die in the process of phagocytosis (engulfing and digesting debris/foreign material), so under microscopy of an infected or inflamed tissue they will be present in abundance. Dead neutrophils are the main component of pus, they are responsible for its whitish colour.


erythrocyte (RBC) width is on average about 25% larger than capillary diameter (elastic bends folds)


for every 1 cell you have 20 bacteria lol


bacteria can connect almost like sex (conjugation)

exchange plasmids (mechanisms to share information like improved withstanding to heat, antibiotic resistance)

antibiotics -> chemicals etc to kill bacteria like penicillium

immune response of B lymphocytes

each B lymphocyte has a unique antibody all over its surface

once activated (involves T cells too but essentially binding with a compatible body virus foreign protein)

they replicate into memory cells and effector cells which will manufacture the antibodies

free antibodies attach to stuff to slow them down and tag them for opsonization (phagocytes will hunt them down)

Contrary to popular belief, the veins are not blue. The color of most blood is a transparent yellow which is due to the majority of blood being composed of blood plasma (If you have seen blood centrifuged, you know what I am referring to). The hematocrit is the only part of blood that is red: dark red if deoxygenated and bright red if oxygenated. No blood is blue (inside the body or out). Dried blood which has no gaseous oxygen in it is still red (though a brownish red at that) because the iron in the blood is still rusted from oxidation. The red blood cells have iron in them due to the hemoglobin molecule in them. It is the iron in blood which attracts oxygen that gives it its red color. The reason why only veins appear blue is because they are the most superficial to the skin and therefore seen by the eye. Arteries can not be seen because of how deep they are in the body (a protective mechanism of our bodies). The color blue/violet is the highest frequency of the visible light scale; it therefore has the most penetrating power to be seen through skin, fat, etc. Red is low-frequency and is filtered out by skin and fat, which is why it cannot be seen. If you took a red diode light and put it in milk, it would appear blue in color because milk filters the red out much like our fat/skin. Try it and see!